Creating a page from a Single Node
There's not much to cover here. As already discussed, when you create a node, Drupal automatically gives it a path (like node/53), or you can give it a path yourself (like product_catalog).
To create a page from that node, then, you don't really need to do anything special. Just go to the node's path (presumably via a menu item you've created for the purpose), and Drupal will whip up a page centered around that node, surrounded by the blocks, graphical elements, footer, and other accoutrements you've set up for the site.
Setting the front page to show a single node
Many sites use the front page to list a number of nodes, or to list short excerpts from a number of nodes. But you can, if you like, set Drupal to build your front page around a single node, as above. See Setting the Front Page.